Advanced Materials & Processes

NOV-DEC 2013

Covers developments in engineering materials selection, processing, fabrication, testing/characterization, materials engineering trends, and emerging technologies, industrial and consumer applications, as well as business and management trends

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market feedback spotlight Magnesium market benefits from auto emissions targets 4 onsumption of magnesium reached a new peak in 2012, 1.1 Mt, with demand growing by 5.5% per year over the past decade, according to a new report from Roskill Information Services Ltd., London. The largest end-uses are die-cast magnesium and aluminum alloys, each accounting for a third of total consumption. The transportation industry is the largest consumer of die-cast magnesium and the second largest consumer of aluminum-magnesium alloys behind packaging. According to analysts, the magnesium industry benefited from a rise in automotive output, led by China, as well as increases in specific consumption of magnesium per vehicle as manufacturers seek to comply with government-imposed emission reduction targets and the rising cost of fuel impacting consumer purchasing. Continued lightweighting efforts mean that growth in magnesium consumption is forecast to continue at 5% per year through 2017. World Production of Primary Magnesium, 2002 to 2012 30 1000 Die-cast magnesium use is likely to 900 25 rise faster, at 6.5% per year, but the 800 20 700 15 market will be tempered by lower 600 10 growth rates in steel desulphurization 500 5 and iron nodularization. 400 0 300 -5 Growth in Chinese consumption 200 -10 Year-over-year % change has more than offset a slight fall in the 100 Total production -15 rest of the world since 2007, and Asia 0 -20 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 now accounts for 43% of the global total, up from 35%. North America represents 20% of consumption, and Europe 15%. India and South Korea have shown strong growth over the last five years, and Russian consumption has almost doubled due to increased titanium production. Asia, and more specifically China, will continue to exhibit the highest growth in demand for magnesium on a regional basis through 2017. Production of primary magnesium continues to be dominated by China, accounting for 75% of global output in 2012, according to Roskill. Russia and the U.S. together represent a further 16%, followed by smaller contributions from Israel, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Serbia, and the Ukraine. Malaysia and South Korea also entered the market in recent years, but these and some limited expansions at existing operations have done little to dampen China's growing share, say analysts. Secondary magnesium, output of which totaled 211 kt, is sourced mainly from die-cast scrap. North America is the main contributor to secondary supply, followed by Europe, as these regions remain large magnesium-based product users. Despite cost competitiveness and overcapacity in China, a new 100 kt/per year electrolytic plant in Qinghai could further alter the domestic landscape. Several companies using new processes, or variations on existing electrolytic and thermal methods, also continue to investigate primary magnesium production in other countries, especially Australia and Canada. However, unless these projects can compete with Chinese Pidgeon process costs, China is likely to steadily increase its market share as demand grows. For more information: Magnesium Metal: Global Industry Markets & Outlook (11th edition) is available at Production (kt) Year-over-year change (%) C ADVANCED MATERIALS & PROCESSES • NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 2013 Superalloy superstars I just read the article by Anthony Giamei on single crystal superalloys in the September issue. This is a splendid piece of work by someone on the inside from the beginning, and an example of metallurgy history at its best. I knew Frank VerSnyder briefly in the early 1960s. I was manager of alloy development at Armour Research Foundation and we had a contract with Pratt & Whitney to study Cbbased alloys for turbines. VerSnyder visited us several times to check on our progress. I knew at the time that he was working on directional solidification of jet engine blades. I just looked him up on the Internet and found he had a great career. He also served on the front lines in the battle of Europe and received several awards including the Purple Heart. VerSnyder should be considered one of our most important metallurgists in the last half of the 20th century. Bob Simcoe [Beginning in the January issue, ASM life member Bob Simcoe will author a yearlong historical series to be titled "Metallurgy Lane." — Eds.] Titanium researcher seeks funding As an ASM member, I receive several ASM publications and I read your editorial in the August issue about NSF funding for material science and engineering with great interest. I am part of a R&D group working on low-cost titanium for use in the automotive industry in both the engine and body. Do you know if it is possible to apply for NSF funding in Canada to continue this research? Or perhaps other ASM members might know of funding institutions or automotive OEMs who could potentially help support this research? I have completed some basic research and development and have also made a few prototypes. It would be very helpful if I could further equip my laboratory space here. Ali Emamian [If anyone knows of funding sources that may be helpful in Canada, please let us know and we will put you in touch with Dr. Emamian. — Eds.] We welcome all comments and suggestions. Send letters to

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